Setting Up and Tuning a Hand Plane

In today’s culture of instant gratification and disposable everything, most of us are conditioned to expect the stuff we buy to just work right out of the box.  Even the caveat “some assembly required” is printed on the packaging of many items, just to make sure there is no misunderstanding.  Published reviews of shop tools invariably dedicate an entire section to the experience of unpacking, cleaning, and setting up the tool for use, before the subject of functionality is even broached.  Whether a realistic expectation or not, once a tool is put together, most people want no further inconvenience beyond plugging it in and turning it on.

It’s no surprise that so many ‘modern’ woodworkers, especially those used to plug-and-play electric tools, eschew anything that requires sharpening, let alone tuning and fettling to make it work properly.  But the fact is, whether 100 years old or brand spanking new, virtually all hand planes benefit from some degree of tuning to bring them to their full potential.  Fortunately, this is not a difficult proposition, and actually aids in better understanding how the tool functions and how to get the most out of it.

Below are the basic steps for setting up and tuning a hand plane for use.  Since there are so many variations of planes, both new and used, I’m purposefully keeping it fairly generic, so some interpretation may be necessary when applying the concepts to the tool in front of you.  But don’t worry, there are no tool police surveilling workshops and garages.  Feel free to skip a step if you don’t think it’s relevant or needed.

Step 1 – One Righteous Sole
I’m not a stickler when it comes to flattening the sole of a plane.  After owning hundreds and using dozens over the years, it’s fairly rare to come across a plane with a sole so warped, cupped, or bowed that it’s unusable.  If you happen upon one that is unusable, my advice is to return it, sell it, or throw it away.  The only possible exceptions are block planes, which are pretty easy to flatten due to their smaller size.  Bench planes are far more difficult, especially the larger ones.  You can take them to a machine shop and have them milled or lapped flat, but forget trying to flatten them yourself with sandpaper unless the problem is very minor.

Good luck trying to lap this 22″ bad boy!

If you do decide to lap your plane’s sole flat, you’ll need a dead flat substrate.  The cast iron bed of a table saw or jointer works well, or if you don’t have one of those available and want to keep it on the cheap, a piece of 12” x 12” or larger granite surface plate or a marble tile from your home center will work for block planes, and typically costs less than $5.00.  Just make sure you retract the blade and tension the lever cap as you would in actual use.  This puts the correct stress on the plane body.  I start with 60 grit and progress up to about 320.  Removing high spots (convexity) is more critical than low spots (concavity).  Keep in mind that you don’t even need the entire sole dead flat.  As long as you have smooth contact at the toe, around the mouth, and at the heel, the plane will work just fine.

Vintage planes often have raised dings, especially along the edges, toe or heel.  A flat mill file makes very quick work of these minor problems.  Finally, some woodworkers file a very small 45 degree chamfer along each edge of the sole.  This is completely optional, but helps prevent inadvertent gouges when using the plane should you tip it slightly.  I’ve seen some Stanley planes from the mid 20th century that appear to have been made that way at the factory.

Step 2 – Flat Frogs Make Better Mates
Bench planes have removable frogs.  Block planes do not.  However, the function of the frog is the same – it provides a secure base to support the iron.  In order for the plane to shave wood correctly, there must not be any movement (wobble, play, rocking, etc.) to the iron.  It must be firmly seated against the frog, so the face of the frog must be as flat as possible.

On your bench plane, unscrew and remove the frog and all of its hardware, including the lever cap bolt on the front and the adjustment plate and screw on the rear.  Taking care not to damage the tip of the yoke that engages the iron and cap/iron, carefully sand the face surface of the frog until it is as flat as possible. I use the edge of my granite block for this, and change direction often to ensure I get a surface as flat as possible.  No need to obsess over it, you just need the iron to seat firmly against it.  While your at it, touch up the mating surfaces on the bottom of the frog where it attaches to the plane base.  Also take a moment to touch up the mating surfaces on the plane body too.  You want the frog to seat as firmly as possible to the body.

Lap frog face on edge of stone to protect yoke

On vintage planes, thoroughly clean all the threads of the screws and bolts to remove any crud or rust, and apply a little light oil before reassembly.  This is particularly important for the large brass adjustment knob, which needs to turn freely along the full length of its bolt.

On your block plane, the frog is not removable, so you only need to touch up the seat with a firm sanding block to ensure it is flat.  Since the flat sloped area behind the mouth on the plane’s base provides much of the forward support for the iron, it needs to be flat too.  Unfortunately, it’s hard to get to, and since you don’t want to enlarge the mouth at all, just a touch using a small piece of angled wood with fine sandpaper wrapped around it is about as far as you want to take it.  Thankfully, this is all that is usually needed to remove old crud. A Dremel or quality flexible shaft tool with a wire wheel brush will also work if the problem is limited to dirt and light corrosion.  Finally, as on the bench plane, clean the threads on all the hardware and add a little light oil to help retard moisture and rust.

Step 3 – Chip Breakers, not Deal Breakers
On bench planes, the chip breaker, more accurately referred to as the Cap Iron, serves three important purposes.  1. It adds rigidity to the iron (blade). 2. It provides a small opening through which the depth adjustment mechanism engages the iron.  3. It helps ‘break’ the shavings as they rise off the cutting edge of the iron, thus preventing them from jamming up the throat of the plane.

Most cap irons, even on new planes, benefit from a little tuning to make them more efficient.  The leading contact edge, where it rests upon the edge of the iron, needs to be completely flat so that no light (or shavings) can pass between the two.  This is a simple matter of a couple of passes on a sharpening stone.  I use my 1000 grit stone as anything higher is overkill.  If you don’t have one, use whatever comparable sharpening media you have available.  Ideally, you should undercut it slightly, so just the front edge makes initial contact.  As you tighten the cap iron against the iron, it will flatten out some.  The idea is to make it completely flush so that fine shavings do not slip in between the cap iron and iron.

Cap iron with polished arch

The other tuning point on the cap iron is its forward arch.  For lowered resistance and smooth chip passage, this arch should be polished.  You can do this by hand using your sharpening stone or sandpaper.  Again, 1000 grit or thereabouts is enough.  Smoother is better, and there’s no downside to over-polishing other than the time it takes.  Once complete, you may need to remove any burr that has formed along the front edge.  I run mine edgewise (like cutting with a knife) down a piece of scrap wood.

Note that block planes do not have cap irons.

Step 4 – Pop a Lever Cap on that Sucka
While appearances and designs vary greatly, all planes have some sort of lever cap.  The lever cap provides the tension that holds the iron in place.  There’s not really a whole lot that needs to be done to the lever cap.  Just ensure that the contact edge on its back side is reasonably flat, so it makes flush contact with the cap iron on which it sits.  Wood shavings will find their way through the tiniest of gaps.  If you’re obsessive, you can polish the forward arch a little just as you did with the cap iron.  You might also add a drop of oil to the working joints to ensure smooth operation.

Bench plane and block plane lever caps

On block planes, since there is no cap iron, the lever cap plays a more important role.  Take a fine file to the back side and remove any rough spots, giving close attention to the leading contact edge.  This is most important on block planes with cast iron hooded style lever caps, such as the old Stanley 9-1/2.  The back sides of these caps are notoriously rough and unfortunately japanned. You don’t need to remove all the japanning, but you do want to get a smooth line of contact down front where it touches the iron.  File it smooth and give it a couple of swipes across your 1000 grit stone.  I like to touch up the top front edge as well, but this isn’t critical.

Step 5 – I Pity the Fool Who Don’t Sharpen His Tool!
The simply fact is, even with brand new planes, the irons require final honing before use.  This is not due to some lack of attention on the part of manufacturers.  Irons are provided this way on purpose, since the manufacturer has no way of knowing what you will be using the plane for, and subsequently how the iron would need to be honed.  If you do nothing else in the way of tuning your plane, at least take the time to properly sharpen it.  Do not skip this step!  Sharpen the iron.  Again, sharpen the iron!  Sharpen it!

Basic sharpening setup using a waterstone

Since sharpening is such an expansive topic in and of itself, I will leave the specific details for other posts.  What you need to know in the context of tuning, however, is that any plane, new or old, requires initial sharpening and honing.  At a minimum, new plane irons need to have their un-beveled side honed flat and polished to at least 4000 grit and preferably 8000 grit.  You don’t need to fuss with the entire surface; just the first 1/8” to 1/4” along the cutting edge will do.  You also need to put a final honing on the bevel edge itself.  It may look sharp, but it needs to be honed, again, to at least 8000 grit.  The goal is to get your cutting edge to as close as possible to a zero degree radius.

Sharpening is too often the deal breaker that dissuades woodworkers from trying hand tools.  This in unfortunate, for it requires little monetary investment to get started, is not particularly difficult to learn, and can be accomplished rather quickly with surprisingly good results.  For detailed information on sharpening, I recommend investing in one of the outstanding books on the subject by Ron Hock or Leonard Lee.   Chris Schwarz has also written a number of fantastic articles on sharpening plane irons. Sharpen the iron.  Again, sharpen the iron!  Sharpen it!

Step 6 – Final Adjustments
Now that you’ve finished tuning and sharpening your plane, it’s time to put it all back together and adjust it for use.  Hopefully, you have a better understanding of what each part does and how they all function together.  This will make adjusting it for use, and while in use, more intuitive and fluid.

A few points of consideration…

While the frog’s position on bench planes is adjustable, meaning you can shift if forward to decrease the size of the mouth opening or backward to increase the size of the opening, it needs to be firmly attached in whatever position you decide so that it doesn’t move when in use.  In other words, to adjust its position, you will have to loosen the screws that attach it to the base.  Without getting into detail, use a larger mouth opening for thicker cuts, and a smaller mouth opening for fine shavings.  Set the position of the frog where you want it and screw it down tight, understanding you may need to do this a couple of times before you get to just the right position.

The cap iron should be firmly screwed to the iron, leaving just a tiny edge of the iron protruding forward.  This should generally be as small as possible – 1/64” for fine shavings to 1/16” or more for heavier cuts, depending on the amount of camber on the iron. The iron/cap iron in place, the lever cap bolt should be tightened just enough to hold the iron firmly so it doesn’t slip in use, but not so tight that you can’t adjust it’s depth of cut using the large brass or steel wheel at the rear of the frog.  If that knob won’t turn, the bolt holding the lever cap is too tight.  This too, may take a couple of tries before you get the feel of it.

Holding the plane upside down, and looking down the sole at a low angle, lower the iron until it just begins to appear through the mouth – just a whisper.  Note that it’s not unusual for there to be quite a bit of slop in the wheel that lowers and raises the iron, as much as ½ to ¾ of a turn.  Just turn it until you begin to feel resistance.  Make any lateral adjustments necessary using the lateral adjustment lever that extends from the top of the frog.  Turn it upright and make a test pass on a piece of scrap wood.  If the plane digs in, back off the depth just a bit.  If it misses entirely, lower the iron a little.  You will quickly get a feel for when it’s ‘right,’ as evidenced by the rewarding ‘thwack’ sound a plane makes when it cuts a perfect curl.

On block planes, adjustments for use are a simple matter of properly tensioning the lever cap and setting the throat opening via the front adjustment plate (if the plane has one).  The same principles apply that you use in adjusting your bench planes.

Tuning a hand plane is not a difficult endeavor.  Once practiced, the whole process can be accomplished in about a half hour, even less depending on the tool.  Rather than view it as an unpleasant chore, I actually enjoy it, especially later in the evening when the dust has settled and the world is quiet.  Pour yourself a measure of Kentucky’s best brown, put on your music of choice, and saddle up to your work bench.

Stanley no. 5 Jack Plane, c. 1940s

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Tools shown in the photos were returned to functional condition by Virginia Toolworks using museum quality archival preservation techniques.  Sharpened and tuned for use, every tool is fully tested and adjusted until perfect.

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Stanley No. 7 Reflects Secret History

Some months back I purchased a particularly beautiful old Stanley no. 7 jointer plane dating from the late 1880s with the intention of reselling it. It was sharp, clean from decades of proper care, and looked like it was still being used a week ago – absolutely amazing condition for its age. The original owner’s initials were neatly stamped on one side and it came from his family’s estate, which was sadly being liquidated. The plane was remarkably perfect by all accounts – except one…

At some point, almost certainly early in its life, the plane was dropped, breaking off the top quarter of the frog. In a classic reflection of those parsimonious times and testament to the care the owner gave to his tools, he went to unusual lengths to repair that frog, fabricating a perfectly fitting replacement section out of brass, secured with handmade copper rivets. Normally I shy away from tools with such repairs, but the complexity and care given to this one fascinated me. It was extremely well executed, having no doubt taken the better part of a day (perhaps even two) to complete, with an aesthetic effect that was detectable only upon close inspection. More important, it also returned the plane to perfect working order.

I was so conflicted I let the plane sit in my shop for weeks as I tried to decide what to do with it. Obviously treasured by its original owner, whether through necessity or nostalgia, it was used and handed down within his family for numerous generations. I hated to think of it being sold for scrap or parts after 130 years, especially given its impeccable working condition. Eventually reason and practicality prevailed, and I reluctantly decided to just list it at a fixed price on eBay, hoping I would find a buyer who could appreciate it as it was. And find a buyer I did… one with a surprising affinity for this particular plane.

Turns out the guy who bought it already had at least one other plane from the same estate with the same owner’s initials stamped on the side. He wrote and told me he was so intrigued at the care the owner had given his tools, he felt compelled to own this no. 7 just for the repair it featured. For him, the repair reflected the respect and value afforded the tool, and that little bit of history made it all the more desirable. He was excited to get it and I was thrilled to have found it a home with a new owner who ‘gets it’ – who appreciates that tool for the secret history it carries in an exceptionally well executed repair. You have to love that!

What to Look for When Buying Vintage Hand Planes

c. 1940s Stanley No. 5 Jack Plane

When I first started buying and collecting vintage hand planes, much of the available information I read online included ominous warnings about warped, twisted soles, unstable frogs, and mangled throats. Sounded more like a Stephen King movie than a discussion about tools! With recommendations for evaluation that involved engineering squares and feeler gauges. I was convinced that no vintage plane I purchased could ever possibly work correctly until I lapped the sole and re-machined every contact surface. It only took me suffering through flattening one or two planes to come to my senses and question just what the heck I was trying to accomplish.

Once I actually started sharpening, tuning, and using hand planes, I realized that most of these warnings were just a lot of unwarranted hooey. The vast majority of vintage planes I’ve owned and used over the years were actually just fine. Naturally, using a nice new Lie Nielsen or Veritas plane provides a noticeably different experience, but at a substantial cost premium. I’m just not there yet, and may never be. Here’s why…

The quality of the tool doesn’t contribute nearly as much to the end result as does the skill of the user. Craftsmen of 100 or so years ago made do just fine with the planes that were available. The average woodworker at the turn of the century didn’t own a micrometer or a machined straight edge. Many didn’t even use a measuring device, instead relying on dividers, marking gauges, and geometry. They used the tools and technology of the day, and produced some of the finest furniture in the world.

That’s not to say that tool quality isn’t important. Or more precisely, it’s not even so much the quality of the tool itself, but the quality of the tool’s tuning combined with proper technique that produces the desired result. As many others have pointed out before, a plane is really nothing more than a jig for holding a cutting implement at a consistent angle. With the appropriate ‘jig-o-metrics’ (tuning) applied, a properly sharpened cutting edge, and skillful application by the user, even the cheapest home center hand plane can competently get the job done. What quality of design, machining, and related workmanship gets you is ease of use and greater versatility. With tighter tolerances you get less slop and greater precision. While a high quality tool won’t improve the results of an unskilled user, it can certainly improve the results of one who has mastered its use.

All that said, there are some red flags to look for when shopping for hand planes, and with the abundance of vintage planes available on eBay, yard sales, and tool swaps across the country, there’s no reason to settle for a tool with serious problems. The challenge is knowing what is serious, and what isn’t. So let’s take it part by part. I’ll try to keep it simple.

Stanley No. 7, Lever Cap & Iron/Cap Iron

Body & Sole
Also sometimes referred to as the ‘base’ or ‘shoe,’ the body of the plane, as the name implies, is the main frame. The sole is the surface that comes in contact with the wood when using the plane. The main thing to look for on the body is cracks and/or repairs. Planes with this sort of damage are best avoided. Small chips along the top edges (cheeks) don’t affect usability, but are cosmetically undesirable. With so many planes available, why settle? The other thing to inspect on the body is the opening where the iron (blade) protrudes. It’s important that the opening, called the mouth or throat, isn’t chipped and hasn’t been repaired or enlarged through filing. The throat opening affects your ability to properly set the iron, and is one area of the plane where precision is extremely important.

Pitting is usually high on the list of problems to avoid. Again, with so many planes available, there’s no reason to settle for a tool with heavy pitting. Pitting is damage from rust that has eaten into the metal. In my experience, unless the pitting is very heavy, it doesn’t usually have much effect on a plane’s performance. Like all the normal scratches, scars, and dings from use that you’ll see, very light areas of pitting are not uncommon and are of little concern with regards to practical usability.

Some folks might disagree, but I don’t worry too much about the flatness of the sole. Having owned more than 250 vintage planes over the course of the time, I’ve only had a few that were unusable, and each of them had other issues more critical than the flatness of the bottom. Slap a ruler or straightedge against it if it makes you feel better or if you’re spending more than $75-$100 on a standard bench plane to use. However, if your need for critical tolerances is that great, I recommend you invest in a modern Lie-Nielsen or Veritas plane. They are machined to engineering grade tolerances, but you’ll pay a premium for them.

Knobs and Totes
The wooden knobs and totes (handle) on planes are frequently found with chips, cracks, and breaks. Aside from the obvious preference that they be perfect, minor damage is usually just cosmetic. Functionality is only compromised when the damage is so bad that they are unstable or inhibiting a proper grip on the plane. Breaks and cracks can often be repaired, even if the damage is severe, and replacements are abundant. If the tool is in otherwise good condition, a damaged or missing knob or tote isn’t a deal breaker for me. For more information check my post on repairing knobs and totes.

Stanley #7 Frog

Frog
The frog is the part of the plane that attaches to the top side of the base and provides an angled seat for the iron (blade), as well as a mechanism to adjust the depth and lateral positioning of the iron. I have no idea why it’s called a frog. Damage to look for is a missing lateral adjustment lever, which was a feature on the frogs of most Stanley (and other) bench planes manufactured after the mid 1880s. The lateral lever sticks up from the top of the frog and enables lateral (side to side) positioning of the iron. Every now and then this lever is missing. Ideally it should be straight and tight, although bends can be straightened and if it’s wobbly, it can be tightened by carefully tapping its rivet with a small ball peen hammer.

Broken and chipped frogs are the main concern and should be avoided. Look close at the bolt hole in the front center of the frog to make sure there are no chips around the edge. Once again, replacement frogs are fairly plentiful, but you will need to find one from the same period of manufacture to ensure proper fit since the design changed over the years.

Iron and Cap Iron
The iron, also referred to as the ‘cutter’ or ‘blade,’ is the tool’s cutting implement. The main things to look for are how much usable length remains and the condition of the surface metal. Pitted irons are not necessarily a lost cause (see my post on salvaging irons), but are problematic. Again, period irons are abundant, but if you’re buying the plane to use, you’ll want to invest in a modern replacement from somewhere like Hock, Lie-Nielsen, or Lee Valley Tools. They are far superior and will make a significant difference in the plane’s performance.

The cap iron, which is sometimes called the chipbreaker or double iron, attaches to the top of the iron and provides both stability and a raised surface to literally break the shaving as it’s cut from the wood. Other than very heavy pitting or a hack grinding job, I’ve rarely seen one of these that wasn’t usable.

Lever Cap
The lever cap sits on top of the iron/cap iron assembly and provides tension to hold them against the frog. Lever caps are sometimes found with chips along the bottom edge, either from having been dropped or used as a screwdriver to loosen the wide screw that attaches the iron and cap iron. While unsightly, a chip along the bottom edge doesn’t really affect its functionality. Again replacements are plentiful. Of greater concern is if it’s missing the tab lever at the top, which acts as a cam that locks the lever cap against the frog. It’s rare that this is missing, but the lever cap cannot function without it.

Frog Adjustment Hardware

Hardware
I’ve covered all the major functional parts, so all that remains is the miscellaneous hardware on the plane – screws, bolts, brass knob, etc. You will want to make sure all the parts are there in order for the plane to function, unless you’re willing to buy replacements on eBay. Since Stanley and others used a very unusual threading on their hardware, you won’t find replacements in your hardware store.

The knob and tote are attached to the plane with a bolt that is threaded on both ends, topped with a brass nut that is visible from the top. Models made during WWII may have single piece steel bolts.

The frog should have a bolt sticking out of the front of it that holds the iron/cap iron via the lever cap. The frog itself is attached to the base with two smaller bolts with washers. At the rear of the frog should be a large brass knob that is used to raise and lower the iron through the throat. It’s important that this knob turn freely across the full length of its bolt, although it’s not unusual to have to clean this area thoroughly before it will work as intended.

On Stanley bench planes made after 1907, there will be an adjustment bolt that engages a small plate attached to the bottom rear of the frog. This enables fine forward/backward adjustments to the frog, which has an effect similar to closing the throat of the plane for fine cuts. Since most bench planes did not have an adjustable throat as found on some of the better block planes, this frog adjustment allowed movement of the entire frog, which accomplished the same thing. Moving the frog back opens the throat for thicker cuts, while moving it forward closes the throat for very fine shavings. It’s actually pretty rare to find this feature permanently frozen due to rust and corrosion, but it’s something to look out for. While it may take a few days of soaking in penetrating oil, they almost always free up.

That’s pretty much it. Very few vintage hand planes are in perfect condition, so it’s important to have realistic expectations. Almost all show the effects of age and use. This is what gives them character. Perhaps most important for new buyers shopping for a first hand plane is to first understand how they function and how they are used. That will make evaluating condition much easier and the assessment more relevant. Additionally, all new hand plane purchasers need to understand that no tool they buy, whether 100 years old or manufactured yesterday, is going to function effectively without proper tuning. That discussion I will save for another post.

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Tools shown in the photos were returned to functional condition by Virginia Toolworks using museum quality archival preservation techniques.  Sharpened and tuned for use, every tool is fully tested and adjusted until perfect.

Condition – The Eye of the Seller

026 SB4-T19 ebay
When it comes to vintage tools, condition, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder… or more specifically, the eye of the seller. So many online tool sellers throw around vague, undefined terms like ‘great condition’, ‘mint condition’ etc., it’s hard to get a good sense of exactly what you’re buying, especially on Ebay. I use such terms sparingly, and only as a complement to a much more specific description of condition and features. That’s why I write my listings using specific descriptives, not subjective adjectives.

Unless they were hermetically sealed soon after they were made, all vintage tools show some degree of age, whether through loss of finish, dents, dings, and scratches from use, transport, and storage, rust damage, or simply darkening from age and environment. It’s also healthy to keep in mind that relatively speaking, these were not precision made tools in the way we think of precision made tools today. Quality control was more subjective, and let’s face it, these were tools of tradesmen who carried them around in wooden boxes on horse drawn carriages. It’s a wonder any of them even survived! Customers of the day were not likely too concerned with cosmetics. They were not the disposable, ‘throw it away and buy a new one’ culture we are today. They used things until they were worn out, then they fixed them up as best they could, and used them some more.

For me, mint condition means brand new, unused, just as it was when it was sold. Anything less is near mint, very fine, fine, good, or user grade. For tools that are 50 to 150 years old to be in mint condition, they would have to not only have never been used, but kept in climate controlled storage so as not to sustain permanent rust or corrosion damage. I’ve seen very few tools that meet this criteria. Near mint to me means the tools was never used or used very lightly. It may well show some evidence of age, but overall looks like something akin to a floor sample. I think far less than 5% of vintage tools fall into this range. The vast majority of tools fall somewhere between Very Fine (maybe 5-10%), Fine (10%), Good and User (45%), and Poor (30%). All of these are, of course, very rough estimates based on my own observations and experience.

I guess the takeaway is, when you’re shopping for vintage tools, whether to use or display, ignore the subjective descriptors and adjectives such as ‘Good’ or ‘Mint’ or ‘Perfect.’ Don’t make assumptions about features, condition, or whether the tool is in working condition. Don’t be afraid to ask questions or request additional photos (if the tool is being sold online). And always be wary of tools that have been over-cleaned or ‘restored.’ To some, restored simply means sharpened. To others, it means completely refinished.

Salvaging Pitted Plane Irons

There’s no question that modern irons are far superior to the vintage irons that you find in virtually all old planes.  Unless you’re a casual   woodworker who only uses your plane(s) a few times a year, the investment in a new A2 or O1 steel iron (from companies like Hock, Veritas, or Lie Nielsen) will provide far superior performance.  These irons are thicker, flatter, and hold an edge better than the old tool steel irons.  That said, woodworkers 100 years ago did just fine with what they had, and many woodworkers today are also collectors and prefer to use their vintage tools in the same manner and with the same limitations as their ancestors.  Regardless of what camp you fall into, at some point, you’re going to come across a plane iron that is pitted.  It is inevitable and unavoidable.

Conventional wisdom and learned advice tells you to pass on irons that are pitted from rust damage.  True, there are plenty of vintage irons out in the market that are undamaged or in at least serviceable condition.  Many people, in fact, throw away or sell for scrap old damaged irons in lots on Ebay, and with good reason.

The problem is, of course, that pitting on the non-beveled (flat) side of the iron often prevents you from polishing it flat and smooth.  Pits that reach the cutting edge create tiny irregularities that subsequently reveal themselves in the shaved surface of your wood.  By contrast, pitting on the beveled side of the iron is of little consequence since it never actually touches the wood.  It might look bad, but it doesn’t affect the iron’s performance.  The only part of the iron that matters is the cutting edge, and both the bevel and flat side of that edge must be properly dressed – sharpened and honed to cut clean.

So what to do with irons that are badly pitted?  If the pitting is limited to the un-beveled side, all you might need do is flip it over, reversing the bevel direction.  Note that you’ll lose about a quarter inch of iron length making this reversal.  And if both sides of the iron are pitted, there is little point.  A better, and simpler solution, is to adjust your cutting angles slightly, adding a slight back bevel to the polished (un-beveled) side – enough to remove the pits and reach clean metal.

Using a standard bench plane as an example, the iron is seated on the frog at a 45 degree angle.  Most woodworkers sharpen the iron with an angle somewhere in the 25 to 35 degree range.  By putting a back bevel of a couple of degrees on the pitted back side, you effectively cut through the pitted surface creating a clean, undamaged edge.  Adjusting your primary bevel angle to compensate (if desired), you end up with a cutting angle of about 46 to 50 degrees – not a critical difference for many woodworkers.  In fact, increasing this angle of attack is advantageous when planning wood with difficult grain. [1]

Now, if you’re obsessive about your edge geometry and angle of cut, this might not be a satisfactory solution.  Although if that’s the case, you probably shouldn’t be futzing with a vintage plane in the first place, let alone salvaging a pitted plane iron.  But if you’re like me, having one or two extra irons set up for different purposes is a must, and finding good use for old irons suffering from age and neglect makes me feel good.  It’s just a matter of purposing them for the right job.

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[1] Hock, Ron, Back Bevels and Plane Geometry, 2010.

Restoration & Preservation of Hand Plane Totes & Knobs

Knob Before & AfterVintage hand planes are commonly found in the wild with filthy, crud encrusted, cracked, or broken totes and knobs.  While I periodically come across a plane with a knob or tote that has an old repair (usually poorly done), most have been left neglected and broken.  Correct vintage replacements, especially for Stanley planes, are readily available on Ebay, but they are expensive, often costing as much or more than an entire tool.  In my experience, however, most damaged wood components can be restored for use, if not display, with just a little effort and patience.

In keeping with my overarching philosophy that less is more when it comes to vintage tool preservation, I strive to retain as much of the original finish and character of the wooden components as possible.  To that end, I don’t advocate refinishing per se, unless of course the original finish has been destroyed through exposure to the elements, heavy use, or in the course of completing the repair.  The very nature of extensive damage (multiple breaks, chips, missing pieces, etc.) will frequently necessitate at least some degree of restoration to the finish itself.  However, when the only other alternative is to discard and replace the damaged part, more radical restoration techniques are easily justified.

In the following sections I will take you through the steps and materials required to complete many of the most common repairs to totes and knobs.  While there are numerous solutions to any one problem, these are the techniques I have found to produce the most favorable results.

General Cleaning and Preservation
The totes and knobs on many vintage hand planes are perfectly fine just as they are.  Unless the tool was never used, virtually all will have some degree of dents, dings and abrasions from time spent in a toolbox.  There may also be a few minor chips along edges, specks of paint, and perhaps the initials of the original owner stamped into the surface.  The varnish might be crazed and there may be some checks in the grain from age and dryness.  And, of course, there may well be layers of dirt, dried oil and grime hiding an otherwise beautiful piece of rosewood.  All of this is to be expected.

I don’t need (or necessarily want) my totes and knobs to look pristine, and most of the time the only treatment I give them is a little wax, or if the wood appears dry, a thorough rub down with a hydrating concoction of linseed oil, turpentine, and vinegar (LTV).  You can make your own or purchase Kramer’s Best Antique Improver, which I’m pretty sure Mr. Kramer makes at home in his kitchen.  Applied with a cotton rag, this all natural solution cleans and nourishes the wood, bringing back is lustrous beauty without petrochemicals, and most importantly, does not alter the finish or surface features at all.

Dirt, Crud, and Paint
For totes and knobs that are structurally sound, but have layers of crud stuck to them (where basic cleaning isn’t enough), I use a very fine synthetic pad or steel wool soaked in the same LTV solution as a lubricant to the abrasive pad.  Using very light pressure, I scrub away whatever crud I can.  This requires a cautious touch, however, as too much scrubbing can easily damage or remove the original finish.  Go slow and repeat if necessary.  Don’t try to remove every speck and spot or the piece will start to look refinished.  Wipe off the slurry of muck this creates and finish up with a generous application of LTV, polished with a clean cotton cloth.

I like to leave paint specks intact since they are a colorful part of the tool’s history and character, but if you’re determined to remove them, use the same technique described above, but with a little more vigor.  This will usually remove most of the tiniest specks.  For larger spots, lubricate the wood with turpentine, and very carefully scrape the paint spot off using a card scraper or any tool with a fairly sharp angle.  I use a three sided hollow scraper that can be found in most art supply stores.  The turpentine provides light lubrication for the scraper, which helps protect the surrounding and underlying finish.  This will leave visible scratched spots, so go over the entire piece again with the fine synthetic pad or steel wool lubricated with turpentine or LTV to blend in any marks you made.  Finish up with an application of LTV, polished with a clean cloth.

Keep in mind that by doing this you are altering the original finish of the piece, not to mention erasing part of its history.  This is a destructive technique, however mild.  Once done, it cannot be reversed, so go slow.

Cracks and Breaks
Like everything else, damage is part of the tool’s history.  Wooden parts are comparatively fragile, and when tools are used improperly or carelessly, they suffer chips, cracks, and breaks.  Age and environment also takes a toll.  Once damage occurs (or is found), there are three options available to the owner – leave it as is, repair the damage, or replace the part.  If you decide to repair the damage, there are two further considerations – functional stability and visual aesthetic.

Cracks and clean breaks are easy to repair, especially if done right away.  Older breaks tend to be literally rougher around the edges, but are still no lost cause.  Even the nastiest shattered breaks with multiple shards, splinters, and open gaps can be repaired with surprisingly appealing cosmetic results.

When performing a repair, function trumps form.  Making it pretty isn’t of much value if the repair breaks the first time you use the tool.  Repairing cracks and breaks necessitates the adherence of two separated pieces of wood, and the obvious solution to that is some sort of adhesive.  Anyone making anything out of wood will likely have one of the commercial polyvinyl acetate (yellow wood) glues close by.  This is probably the most common type of glue used in woodworking.  If you’re a purist you might favor hide glue.  The newer polyurethane glues (ex. Gorilla brand) are popular and very strong, but messy.  These are just a few of the options available.

I’ve tried just about every type of glue, and have found that 2 part epoxy provides the best results for this particular application.  It is quite strong, does not require pressure while curing, cures under a wide range of temperatures, has good gap filling properties, can be filed and sanded, is easily tinted, and accepts a finish.

2 Part epoxy consists of a resin and a hardener.  Simply squeeze out an equal measure of both, mix thoroughly, and apply.  I tint the epoxy with just a pinch of dry pigment (available at art supply stores) before mixing.  I typically use black or raw umber if working on rosewood.  It doesn’t take much to tint the epoxy, just a tiny amount.  I should note that you can also use very fine rosewood sawdust to tint the epoxy, which works exceptionally well and is naturally a perfect color match.

Mix the epoxy thoroughly and apply liberally to both mating surfaces.  Use a razor blade or thin knife to work it into cracks.  Clamp tight as best you can remembering it’s actually more important that the pieces stay properly aligned than under a lot of pressure.  With this method, you actually want a little squeeze out consistently along the seam to fill any gaps that might remain, so don’t wipe it off.  Epoxy starts to set in about 5 minutes, but takes a good 24 hours to cure.  Let it fully harden before proceeding.

Once cured, use the scraper or a file to remove the excess epoxy.  I use old steel files for this purpose.  File sharpness for this sort of woodwork is not as much of concern as it is for metalwork, and old files are plentiful and cheap.  You’re going to damage the surrounding finish doing this, but don’t worry, you’ll touch it up later.  Nasty breaks or poor alignment during curing may leave some rough spots.  Go ahead and reshape these areas using the files or a rasp.  Remember to use progressively finer teeth.  Once shaped, finish up with 200 to 320 grit sandpaper to remove file marks and help refine shape and edges.  At this point there should be no open gaps or holes.

Now you’ll need to repair the finish.  Stanley and most competitors used a varnish on their totes and knobs, and fortunately for us, they weren’t too concerned with leaving a furniture grade finish.  The finish they imparted was utilitarian and that works in our favor.  There are lots of finish options to choose from, but I prefer a penetrating oil and varnish blend, such as Watco Danish Oil Finish.  It comes in both tinted and natural versions, which you can tint yourself if desired.  Tinting helps hide the epoxy seams and blends well with the existing finish. Follow the directions on the can closely.  I apply it to the repaired portions only, slightly overlapping the original finish on adjacent areas.  The finish builds up slowly and will require multiple applications.  This takes patience and time, but the results are worth it.  Once you feel you’re getting close, dry buff the new finish using the fine synthetic pad, blending it with the areas of old finish.  Repeat steps with more Watco if necessary.   Once the new finish matches the old in overall luster and is completely cured, top it off with a good rub of LTV or wax.  Buff to a shine with a cotton cloth.  If the new finished area looks dull compared to the original finish, you need to go back and add more coats.

When well executed, breaks and cracks repaired in this manner are not only extremely strong and stable, they are nearly invisible.

Chips and Missing Chunks
Knobs with minor chips around the base and totes with missing or chipped tips are common.  Many chips are simply not practical to replace – those along the top edge of the tote’s tip, for example.  Others, such as an entire missing horn or a chunk missing from a knob base provide an interesting challenge.  The solution is no mystery, however.  It’s a matter of filing or sanding a perfectly flat mating surface, attaching a section of replacement wood, reshaping the new piece, and applying a finish.

Often the most frustrating part of the process is finding pieces of matching rosewood to use for the repair.  For this I save all the broken totes and knobs I can find to use as scrap.  It’s just a matter of cutting a new piece to the approximate size needed for the repair.  The most difficult part of the process is creating perfectly flat mating surfaces.  As discussed above, the epoxy is somewhat forgiving in its ability to fill gaps, but better mating makes for a stronger joint.  The easiest way to accomplish this is by using a motorized disk sander with an adjustable table.  If you don’t have one, you can do it by hand using sandpaper adhered to a flat substrate.  ¼” or thicker plate glass is best, although I’ve achieved great results using a four dollar 12” x 12” granite surface plate.  It just takes a very steady hand.

The glue up process is the same as previously described.  Once attached, shape the new section using rasps and files, followed by sandpaper.  Apply the finish and you’re done.

Fixing Old Repairs
Fixing poorly executed old repairs frequently present the biggest restoration challenge.  It’s easier to do it right the first time than to undo and fix a mistake that was already made.  The variety of old repairs you might come across are infinite, so I will speak in general terms.

Begin by removing any nails, screws, or bolts present.  Old glue joints can often be softened by gently heating the piece.  Just be careful not to get too hot or you’ll ruin the finish, if not set the whole thing on fire!  If the old repair joint is bad enough, you might have to cut through it with a band saw to give yourself nice new mating halves, although you do lose a little of the dimension.  Some joints are brittle enough to break apart by hand.  Others are poorly aligned but extremely strong; you may not be able to get these apart at all.  The important thing is to assess and decide up front just how you plan to proceed, then go at it.

If nothing else, a poorly aligned or ugly break repair (that is otherwise stable) can be cosmetically improved by filling the gaps and holes with tinted epoxy.  This includes nail and screw holes.  Once cured, file and sand it smooth and touch it up with the Watco finish.  Where alignment is poor, this may require some fairly aggressive reshaping of surrounding wood, but the results are usually much improved.

Damaged Finishes
On some planes the wood finish is damaged or worn so extensively that the wood appears bare.  On others, the finish might be intact but is very faded.  Others still, especially those from the 1940s and 50s might have a finish that is heavily crazed and flaking off.  It’s very important to determine just what the problem is before attempting a repair.  I’ve seen planes on which the wood at first glance looked like a completely lost cause, only to find that a simple cleaning and conditioning brought them back to life.  Proceed conservatively until you know what you’re dealing with.

Wood that has lost it finish for whatever reason can be restored following the steps above.  If the damage is weather or water related, you may need to sand down the surface before proceeding.  If the wood has a lot of open pores, you may get better results by wet sanding with the Watco, especially through the first two or three coats.  This creates a slurry that helps fill the pores and seal the wood.

For finishes that are flaking off, the best you can do is remove all the loose finish using the scraper or fine steel wool and turpentine.  I’m usually pretty aggressive with this because the flaking reflects something wrong with the original finish itself.  A healthy, properly applied finish will not flake off, even after decades.  Better to remove all of it and start over.

I don’t mind scars, scratches, and initials, etc.  I like the character they provide.  If rough, a single application of Watco will help seal the wood, preserving and protecting these features.

Painted and Varnished Hardwood
Stanley used painted hardwood totes and knobs in its planes for a brief period during the 1940s.  These are almost always found in terrible cosmetic condition, with chips and areas of loss to the painted finish.  After briefly returning to rosewood in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the company switched to heavily varnished hardwood, and then finally to a lighter varnished hardwood in the 1960s.

In my experience, these finishes are virtually impossible to restore in any conservative manner.  Short of simply cleaning them, leaving them otherwise as is, the only other thing you can do is to completely refinish them.  Unfortunately, refinished wood looks… refinished.  If you like your tools to look like new, have at it.  I just clean them up as best I can and call it a day.

Loose Totes
Pick up 5 planes and at least one of them will have a loose tote.  Have you ever tightened that tote bolt as far as you dare only to find the tote still slips when you go to use it?  It seems to be more common in the shorter smoothing planes that don’t have a toe screw in their totes.  Perhaps it’s due to wood shrinkage… who knows?  Regardless, it’s easy to resolve.  Remove the bolt and grind off a millimeter or so to shorten it.  Replace the bolt and tighten it down.  The tote should now be secure. You might have to do this a couple of times depending on how loose it is.

Suggested Resources
• Turpentine
• Kramer’s Best Antique Improver
• Fine Synthetic Wool Pads
• Fine Steel Wool
• 2 Part Epoxy (5 Min)
• Artists Pigments (Black, Raw Umber, Burnt Sienna)
• 3 Sided Hollow Scraper
• Old Metal Files (Mill, Half Round, Round, etc.)
• Wet/Dry Sandpaper (60 to 320 grits)
• Cotton Rags
• Rosewood scraps

The Restoration of Old Hand Planes

Bed Rock 605C Type 7 ComparisonOpinions on the restoration of old hand planes, or virtually any antique item for that matter, vary widely and are frequently debated within their respective communities of interest. Many believe fervently that old tools should not even be cleaned, maintaining every grimy detail of its use and history. Others prefer refinishing them to like new condition. My thoughts on the subject are largely dependent upon the specific attributes of the tool – age, rarity, condition, etc., as well as the intent of the owner. There are rare and quite valuable tools whose value would be destroyed if restored. There are many others in such exceedingly poor condition that their value can only be improved by restoration. Still others have no significant value as an antique, but could be restored to functional condition for renewed use.

I personally believe that less is more when it comes to restoration. I like the idea of retaining a tool’s character – its scars and marks from use, its patina, etc. However, with rare exception, I find no nostalgia in rust and dirt. I believe a tool should be cleaned and maintained in the same manner as the original craftsman who owned it would have done. A hundred years ago, these tools represented the livelihood of the owner. They were relatively expensive and the woodworkers who owned them relied on them to make a living. They would not have allowed rust to accumulate and would have cleaned and oiled them regularly. Many vintage tools were in fact well maintained for generations, yet were eventually replaced by “improved” models (or power tools) and were left unused and abandoned in recent decades. Often, a good cleaning with mineral spirits or light buffing with fine steel wool and a penetrating oil lubricant is all that’s needed to remove light rust, restoring the tool to fully functional condition.

Other tools, particularly hand planes made after about 1935, are abundant, have little historical significance, and are therefore frequently restored solely for renewed use. For these, the extent of restoration depends primarily on the personal preference of the woodworker who intends to use it. Refinishing to like new condition might be important to one person, while others care only about functionality. Further, since the quality of many planes began a slow decline after the mid 1930s and became largely inferior by 1960, restoration of these later planes for use today often necessitates a more radical approach that extends beyond the mere cosmetic.

As is often quoted on the subject of restoration, ‘you can always go back and do more, but you can’t undo what’s already been done’.  Noting that my terminology is somewhat subjective (even to me) I loosely assign tools I come across to one of four categories:

  1. Rare, Exceptional or Near Mint – A broad category that includes tools that saw little to no use, were stored safely, have no rust or corrosion damage, and need nothing in the way of cleaning or restoration.  Also included in this category are the very rare tools sought by serious collectors.  Other than perhaps wiping off any dirt, I tend not to mess with them at all – they are too valuable.
  2. Fine Collector – These tools may have traces of rust but little or no corrosion damage, and have essentially been maintained/stored in ready to use condition.  The metal may be darkened, the tool may be dirty from use, and the wood may be scarred with a worn finish.  Tools in this category show signs of use but are in excellent original condition and need nothing more than a very light cleaning with natural based cleaners or mineral spirits and penetrating oil to remove dirt and accumulated crud that could cause corrosion if left.  Brass may be cleaned but never polished; wood may be lightly cleaned and waxed but never refinished.  These are good collector grade tools for the average person and the common sizes also make very impressive shop tools.
  3. Collectable User – These tools have moderate rust and and areas of corrosion but are restorable to good user or casual collector status with some careful cleaning and rust removal.  Tools in this category often show signs of heavy use but are in overall good condition.  They may need extensive cleaning with mineral spirits and penetrating oil to remove dirt and accumulated crud.  Wood pieces may be cracked, split or chipped and in need of a careful repair.  Broken, severely damaged or missing pieces may need to be replaced with the correct vintage part.  Brass may be cleaned but never polished; wood may be lightly cleaned and waxed but never refinished.   These are handsome shop tools that may also appeal to casual user/collectors.
  4. Shop Grade – These are tools that have no collectable value other than as a general user in the shop.  These tools typically spent most of the last 40 to 60 years in (or under) a barn and are in very poor condition (ready for the landfill).  They are so far gone that it really doesn’t matter what you do to them – anything is an improvement.  Tools in this condition may require extensive and aggressive restoration efforts in order to save them at all.  Castings might be heavily rusted, japanning mostly gone, parts broken or missing, etc.  In some cases they are simply a lost cause and the best you can do is salvage usable parts.  Others can be restored to shop grade condition through electrolytic or chemical rust removal, re-lapping, and/or replacement or refinishing of damaged parts.  Fun to restore, these tools can end up looking and working great again, but are workshop grade only – although still better than most of what you can buy today and at a fraction of the price.

There is something infinitely rewarding about taking an old forgotten bench plane and giving it a second life decades after it was left to rot.  They are elegant, beautiful, tactile tools.  Each has its own history, its own character.  Like people, tools should be allowed to age gracefully and naturally.  And just like old people, old tools have a story to tell – every paint spot, dent, ding, scratch and chip reflects a different point in time and a different job completed.   I believe restoration efforts should be judiciously limited and intended to stabilize these old tools only as necessary to prevent futher decay, and return them to functional working condition.

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