Five Confusion-Busting Facts About Type Studies


Five important confusion-busting facts about Type Studies:

    1. Type Studies are modern-day timelines used to identify the age of a tool by referencing important changes in its design, manufacture, and physical characteristics.  Different ‘Types’ within a Type Study refers to a particular period of manufacture in which a particular feature or set of features was unique.
    2. Manufacturers didn’t adhere to Type Studies because Type Studies did not exist at the time.  They simply manufactured tools and made periodic changes to design and manufacturing processes, just like manufacturers today.  We identify those periodic changes in the Type Study, and subsequently assign ‘Types’ based on the time period in which they were made.
    3. Type Studies are not interchangeable.   They only apply to a specific model or series of tools.  Different tools and different lines will have different Type Studies.  For example, Stanley’s Bailey line of bench planes have a completely different Type Study from the Bed Rock series.   Some tools, like the no. 71 router plane, have their own individual Type Study.  Many tools have never been studied in depth and don’t have a Type Study at all.
    4. Type Studies are approximations.  The manufacturing timeline was constantly evolving.  Even when design changes were made, existing (old) stock parts were used until their supply was depleted before moving to new parts.  Therefore, the changeover of features sometimes took months or even years, resulting in multiple variations of the same product being released at the same time.  While Type Studies imply that these changes were aligned with a specific date or year, collectors need to understand that the transitions were more evolutionary than revolutionary.
    5. Type Studies are not all-inclusive.  With some manufacturers and some tools, and some tools made during certain periods, features and materials varied quite a bit.  A good example of this is Stanley’s offering of Bailey bench planes made during World War II.  Brass was in short supply, and subsequently, the so-called Type 17 planes made during the war years have a variety of inconsistencies.  Some had brass hardware, where others have steel.  Some have rosewood knobs and totes, while others have painted hardwood.  Some have frog adjustment mechanisms while others don’t.   All made during this period, however, are considered Type 17, regardless of features.

Tune Your Hand Plane Tonight

Among the most frequent web searches that lead people to this site come from those looking for information on tuning a hand plane.  Admittedly, for those new to the craft, or at least new to using hand tools, the prospect of setting up and fine tuning a hand plane is daunting.  After all, the nomenclature of parts is bewildering, the functional mechanics are an exercise in geometry and physics, and then there’s that whole issue with sharpening.  It’s no wonder so many people would rather spend an evening prepping for a colonoscopy.

But yea I say unto you, fear not!  Tending to a neglected (or new) hand plane is both relaxing and rewarding, and in most cases takes just an hour or two.  Best of all, the gratification is instant, the rewards immediate.

Now in the interest of keeping things simple, I’m going to assume that your plane is already in a mechanically functional condition and doesn’t require a full blown restoration.  For that level of detail, I recommend reading the posts under Preservation on the menu bar at the top of the page.  I’m also going to focus solely on bench planes.  I’ll cover black planes in a later post.  For simple tuning in one evening, read on…

Step 1 – Pour Drink of Preference

PVW-trio-4What you drink is up to you, and moderation is certainly recommended, for while you won’t be working with powered tools, you will be handling very sharp objects.  I personally prefer a finer bourbon, perhaps Maker’s 46 or Elijiah Craig 18 year, or if I’m in a particularly festive mood, a little Jefferson Presidential Select 17 year or Pappy Van Winkle.  Either way, begin by putting on some relaxing music and have a drink.  (5 minutes)


Step 2 – Disassembly & Cleaning

Disassembled Plane, Ready for TuningThe second step is to completely disassemble your plane and clean all the parts.  Using screwdrivers of the appropriate size, remove all the parts, screw, bolts, washers, etc.  If you’re not completely familiar with what and where everything goes or are worried you might have trouble putting it all back together, take pictures or notes.  Or just pay attention; it’s not that complicated for heaven’s sake.

Once disassembled, brush off all the sawdust and dirt.  If the filth is excessive, use a toothbrush and orange degreaser (available at the hardware or grocery store).  Also take a few minutes to clean the threads and slots on all the screws and bolts.  I use a small wire bristle brush with a little turpentine or light penetrating oil like WD-40. Once cleaned, wipe them down and set them out of the way so they don’t attract grit.  (10 minutes)

Step 3 – Inspect the Sole

Stanley No. 7 Jointer PlaneTake a look at the sole (bottom) of the plane.  Put a straight edge against it if it makes you feel better.  Once you’ve convinced yourself that it’s flat enough (which it undoubtedly is), set it aside and have another drink.  Seriously, after owning hundreds and using dozens of planes over the years, I’m convinced it’s rare to come across one with a sole so warped, cupped, or bowed that it’s unusable.  If there are any dents or dings with raised points around the edges that risk digging into your wood surface, carefully file them flat with a mill file, followed by a little 220 grit sandpaper.  You can also use the sandpaper or steel wool to remove any heavy crud – I suggest lubricating it generously with WD-40, Mineral Spirits, or Turpentine.  Working against a dead flat substrate such as a granite or the iron bed of a table saw is recommended.  Go easy.  No need to overdo it; you just want it to be clean and smooth.  (5-30 minutes depending)

Step 4 – Address the Frog

Lap frog face on edge of stone to protect yokeFirst inspect the seat for the frog on the top side of the plane’s base.  This is the area of contact where the frog attaches to the body of the plane.  The mating surfaces must be clean and flat.   Use a toothbrush with the degreaser.  If there is stubborn crud to be removed, use a brass bristle brush.  If the crud is really bad, you can use a small steel brush, but be very careful to to damage the surrounding finish.  Mating surfaces on the frog itself should also be cleaned in the manner described above.

The face of the frog is one of the more critical surfaces of the plane.  It needs to be as flat as you can get it so the iron sits completely flush against.  You don’t want any wiggle or movement, so any high spots or irregularities in the casting need to be filed or sanded flat.  I go back to my granite surface and sandpaper for this.  Taking care not to damage the tip of the yoke that engages the iron and cap/iron, carefully sand the face surface of the frog until it is as flat as possible.  Change directions periodically to keep it even.  You only need to do enough to ensure the iron sits flat against it.  (15-30 minutes)

Step 5 – Polish the Cap Iron

Cap IronThe leading edge of your cap iron (also called the chip breaker) will need a little attention.  Flatten the leading edge of the cap iron where it contacts the iron so that it seats completely flush against it.  You don’t want any gaps that shavings can slip through.  While you’re at it, polish the top side of that leading edge as well (the hump) to make it nice and smooth.  Less friction makes the shavings pass over it more easily, helping to prevent clogs.   The smoother the better, but don’t obsess over this step.  (10 minutes)   

Step 6 – Sharpen the Iron

Sharpening SetupYes, I know, the step everyone loves to hate.  Even for me, it’s often a task that I procrastinate over, but once I get going, I actually enjoy it.  Since this is not a sharpening tutorial, I’ll leave the particulars on methodology to another post or reference.  But if you do nothing else, take the time to put a keen edge on your plane’s iron.  A 25 degree bevel works perfectly on bench planes; add a micro bevel if you’re into that, and don’t forget to polish the unbeveled back edge. (30 minutes)

Step 7 – Lubrication

Pure Oil 1Lubrication is a good idea, but should be done sparingly since oil attracts dirt and grit.  I add just a drop of light oil to the threads of all the bolts and screws before re-installing them.  I also add a drop to all the moving/adjustment parts, but wipe them with a rag afterward so that only a light film is left.  They certainly don’t need to be dripping.

Some guys believe in waxing the sole.  Nothing wrong with that as long as you don’t use a silicone based wax.  However, I just wipe down all exterior surfaces with a little Jojoba oil for storage.  (5 minutes)

Step 8 – Assemble, Adjust, Cut

Stanley Bailey no. 5, Type 17 - WWII VintageTime to put it all back together.  Re-attach the frog and all its related hardware first, but don’t tighten just yet.   Put the knob and tote back on if you took it off.  Carefully put the iron and cap iron assembly in place and install the lever cap.  It should lock down securely, but not so tight as to inhibit raising and lowering the iron.  Adjust the frog forward or backward as needed until the iron’s cutting edge is positioned appropriately for the type of planing you intend to do (see open vs closed mouth).  Once set, tighten down the frog and lower the iron into the mouth to take your first test cut.   All of your hardware and adjustment mechanisms should move freely and smoothly. (10-15 minutes)

Unless you run into an unexpected problem, the entire tuning and sharpening process can be completed in about 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 hours, and even quicker if you’re tuning a new plane or re-tuning a plane that has already been tuned or well cared for.  It’s easy, rewarding, and builds both knowledge and confidence in your ability to master hand planes.


Wait!  What about the tote and knob, you ask?  You can read all about their care and repair right here.

New Old Vintage Planes for Sale

I will be listing several planes and other tools for sale over the next few months.  You can view current offerings by clicking on For Sale on the menu bar.  To view these tools in greater detail or if you are interested in purchasing, please visit the Virginia Toolworks eBay page at


The Restoration of Old Hand Planes

Bed Rock 605C Type 7 ComparisonOpinions on the restoration of old hand planes, or virtually any antique item for that matter, vary widely and are frequently debated within their respective communities of interest. Many believe fervently that old tools should not even be cleaned, maintaining every grimy detail of its use and history. Others prefer refinishing them to like new condition. My thoughts on the subject are largely dependent upon the specific attributes of the tool – age, rarity, condition, etc., as well as the intent of the owner. There are rare and quite valuable tools whose value would be destroyed if restored. There are many others in such exceedingly poor condition that their value can only be improved by restoration. Still others have no significant value as an antique, but could be restored to functional condition for renewed use.

I personally believe that less is more when it comes to restoration. I like the idea of retaining a tool’s character – its scars and marks from use, its patina, etc. However, with rare exception, I find no nostalgia in rust and dirt. I believe a tool should be cleaned and maintained in the same manner as the original craftsman who owned it would have done. A hundred years ago, these tools represented the livelihood of the owner. They were relatively expensive and the woodworkers who owned them relied on them to make a living. They would not have allowed rust to accumulate and would have cleaned and oiled them regularly. Many vintage tools were in fact well maintained for generations, yet were eventually replaced by “improved” models (or power tools) and were left unused and abandoned in recent decades. Often, a good cleaning with mineral spirits or light buffing with fine steel wool and a penetrating oil lubricant is all that’s needed to remove light rust, restoring the tool to fully functional condition.

Other tools, particularly hand planes made after about 1935, are abundant, have little historical significance, and are therefore frequently restored solely for renewed use. For these, the extent of restoration depends primarily on the personal preference of the woodworker who intends to use it. Refinishing to like new condition might be important to one person, while others care only about functionality. Further, since the quality of many planes began a slow decline after the mid 1930s and became largely inferior by 1960, restoration of these later planes for use today often necessitates a more radical approach that extends beyond the mere cosmetic.

As is often quoted on the subject of restoration, ‘you can always go back and do more, but you can’t undo what’s already been done’.  Noting that my terminology is somewhat subjective (even to me) I loosely assign tools I come across to one of four categories:

  1. Rare, Exceptional or Near Mint – A broad category that includes tools that saw little to no use, were stored safely, have no rust or corrosion damage, and need nothing in the way of cleaning or restoration.  Also included in this category are the very rare tools sought by serious collectors.  Other than perhaps wiping off any dirt, I tend not to mess with them at all – they are too valuable.
  2. Fine Collector – These tools may have traces of rust but little or no corrosion damage, and have essentially been maintained/stored in ready to use condition.  The metal may be darkened, the tool may be dirty from use, and the wood may be scarred with a worn finish.  Tools in this category show signs of use but are in excellent original condition and need nothing more than a very light cleaning with natural based cleaners or mineral spirits and penetrating oil to remove dirt and accumulated crud that could cause corrosion if left.  Brass may be cleaned but never polished; wood may be lightly cleaned and waxed but never refinished.  These are good collector grade tools for the average person and the common sizes also make very impressive shop tools.
  3. Collectable User – These tools have moderate rust and and areas of corrosion but are restorable to good user or casual collector status with some careful cleaning and rust removal.  Tools in this category often show signs of heavy use but are in overall good condition.  They may need extensive cleaning with mineral spirits and penetrating oil to remove dirt and accumulated crud.  Wood pieces may be cracked, split or chipped and in need of a careful repair.  Broken, severely damaged or missing pieces may need to be replaced with the correct vintage part.  Brass may be cleaned but never polished; wood may be lightly cleaned and waxed but never refinished.   These are handsome shop tools that may also appeal to casual user/collectors.
  4. Shop Grade – These are tools that have no collectable value other than as a general user in the shop.  These tools typically spent most of the last 40 to 60 years in (or under) a barn and are in very poor condition (ready for the landfill).  They are so far gone that it really doesn’t matter what you do to them – anything is an improvement.  Tools in this condition may require extensive and aggressive restoration efforts in order to save them at all.  Castings might be heavily rusted, japanning mostly gone, parts broken or missing, etc.  In some cases they are simply a lost cause and the best you can do is salvage usable parts.  Others can be restored to shop grade condition through electrolytic or chemical rust removal, re-lapping, and/or replacement or refinishing of damaged parts.  Fun to restore, these tools can end up looking and working great again, but are workshop grade only – although still better than most of what you can buy today and at a fraction of the price.

There is something infinitely rewarding about taking an old forgotten bench plane and giving it a second life decades after it was left to rot.  They are elegant, beautiful, tactile tools.  Each has its own history, its own character.  Like people, tools should be allowed to age gracefully and naturally.  And just like old people, old tools have a story to tell – every paint spot, dent, ding, scratch and chip reflects a different point in time and a different job completed.   I believe restoration efforts should be judiciously limited and intended to stabilize these old tools only as necessary to prevent futher decay, and return them to functional working condition.

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